Catalan apostrophe

In catalan if an article, a preposition or a pronoun precedes or follows a word that starts or ends with a vowel it can be necessary to use the apostrophe, in this lesson we will see the catalan apostrophization rules (regles d’apostrofació).

Articles

  • The singular masculine article (el, en, so, es) is apostrophized if it precedes a word starting with a vowel, with a mute h, os with a liquid s.
    Examples: l’avió (the airplane), n’Albert (the Albert), l’home (the man), l’stock (the stock)
  • The singular masculine article (el, en, so, es) is not apostrophized if it precedes a word starting with a consonantic i or u.
    Examples: el iogurt (the yogurt)
  • The singular femenine article (la, na, sa) is apostrophized if it precedes a word starting with a vowel or with a mute h.
    Examples: l’emoció (the emotion), n’Elena (the Hellen), l’heura (the ivy)
  • The singular femenine article (la, na, sa) is not apostrophized it it precedes a word starting with a consonantic or unstressed i or u (preceded by a mute h or not), or some concrete words like la una (if we are referring to the time), la ira, or with the names of the letters such as la i, la hac.
    Examples: la hiena (the hyena), la universitat (the university)

Preposition de

  • Preposition de is apostrophized if it precedes a word starting with a vowel or with a mute h.
    Examples: d’aigua (of water), d’humitat (of humidity)
  • Preposition de is not apostrophized if it precedes a word starting with a consonantic i or u, or names of letters.
    Examples: de ioga (of yoga), de hac (of h)

Weak pronouns

  • Weak pronouns are apostrophized if they precede a verb starting with a vowel of if they follow a verb ending with a vowel, respectively using their elided forms and their reduced forms.
    Examples: m’agrada (I like), menja’n (eat some of that)
  • Weak pronouns are apostrophized also when there are two weak pronouns in a row.
    Examples: me’n, li’n, se’m, te’ls, la’n, n’hi
  • Weak pronouns us, hi, ho, li, les are never apostrophized.
  • The first weak pronoun in the form “se us” is never apostrophized, neither the pronoun la is apostrophized if it precedes a word starting with an unstressed i or u, with or without mute h.
    Examples: la ignora (he/she/it ignores her), la hi

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