Catalan weak pronouns
Catalan weak pronouns (pronoms febles) are unstressed personal pronouns that can be located after or before a verb, they are called like that because they don’t have a phonic accent.
Each pronoun has up to four different forms, depending on if it located before or after the verb or the pronoun that it accompanies, and depending on if it apostrophised or not.
Weak pronouns are usually placed before the verb and they don’t have an apostrophe (enhanced form), but if the verb is conjugated in its imperative form, infinitive form, or gerund form, you have to place them after the verb (complete form).
When the pronouns em, et, el, la, es, en are placed before the verb, if the verb starts with a vowel, they pass to their elided form and you have to apostrophize them in m’, t’, l’, l’, s’, n’.
When the pronouns em, et, es, el, ens, els, en are placed after the verb, if the verb ends with a vowel, they pass to their reduced form and you have to apostrophize them in ‘m, ‘t, ‘l, ‘ns, ‘ls, ‘n.
In this table you can see all the forms of all pronoms febles.
The pronoun ho is a neutral direct complement (this, Codest, that) or a subordinate clause, in English you would say simply it.
Examples: Ja ho hem fet (we have already done it), t’ho he dit (I told you (that))
The pronoun ne is a partitive pronoun like the Italian pronoun ne or the French pronoun en which mean “this”, it can also be used as an adverb of origin which would correspond to “from here / there.”
Examples: Menja’n (eat some of this/that), me’n vaig (I’m going away (from here/there)), ves-te’n (go way (from here/there))
The pronoun hi is similar to the Italian pronoun ci or the French pronoun y and it is used as an adverb of place or direction that would correspond to “here/there” or “to here/there.”
Examples: Ja hi son tots? (are they all already there?), que hi podem fer? (what can we do here/about this?), hi ha algú? (is there anyone??)